Join our Balls to Cancer Ladies team with the “Great Big Green Week”

As a club that have recently signed up to the Birmingham County FA Sustainability Pledge we are requesting your support for the forthcoming Great Big Green Week activity (18-26th Sept) organised by the Climate Coalition 

What is the Great Big Green Week?

The Great Big Green Week will take place 18 – 26 September 2021, and will be the largest event for climate and nature ever seen in the UK.

Thousands of events will celebrate how communities are taking action to tackle climate change and protect green spaces, and encourage others to get involved too. 

Our Event – “Pass” on the Car

As one of the largest County FA’s in the country with upwards of 100,000 people involved in grassroots football on a weekly basis we recognise that travel behaviours form a significant part of an individual’s carbon footprint. 

Through our partners at Pledgeball we plan to encourage all those involved in grassroots football clubs across our region to commit to not using the car for all journeys under 2 miles, with those who have signed the pledge leading by example During the week we want as many participants from our active clubs as possible to use alternative ways to travel to football for example; walking, cycling, running, scooter or skateboard! And to record their actions 

The Ask

Over the build up to the week we would like you to encourage your members via your social channels, newsletters, emails and team WhatsApp groups to register at Pledgeball, recording their commitments on your club account and we can then calculate the Co2e savings, creating a league table that will be shared across our socials & website, with prizes on offer to the winners over the week. We can provide text to help with this. 

Female Breast Cancer

Breast cancer can have several symptoms, but the first noticeable symptom is usually a lump or area of thickened breast tissue.

Most breast lumps are not cancerous, but it’s always best to have them checked by a doctor.

You should also see a GP if you notice any of these symptoms:

  • a change in the size or shape of one or both breasts
  • discharge from either of your nipples, which may be streaked with blood
  • a lump or swelling in either of your armpits
  • dimpling on the skin of your breasts
  • a rash on or around your nipple
  • a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast

Breast pain is not usually a symptom of breast cancer.

Causes of breast cancer

The exact causes of breast cancer are not fully understood. However, there are certain factors known to increase the risk of breast cancer.

These include:

  • age – the risk increases as you get older
  • a family history of breast cancer
  • a previous diagnosis of breast cancer
  • a previous non-cancerous (benign) breast lump
  • being tall, overweight or obese
  • drinking alcohol

Diagnosing breast cancer

After examining your breasts, a GP may refer you to a specialist breast cancer clinic for further tests. This might include breast screening (mammography) or taking a small sample of breast tissue to be examined under a microscope (a biopsy).

Types of breast cancer

There are several different types of breast cancer, which develop in different parts of the breast.

Breast cancer is often divided into either:

  • non-invasive breast cancer (carcinoma in situ) – found in the ducts of the breast (ductal carcinoma in situ, or DCIS) which has not spread into the breast tissue surrounding the ducts. Non-invasive breast cancer is usually found during a mammogram and rarely shows as a breast lump.
  • invasive breast cancer – where the cancer cells have spread through the lining of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. This is the most common type of breast cancer.

Other, less common types of breast cancer include:

  • invasive (and pre-invasive) lobular breast cancer
  • inflammatory breast cancer
  • Paget’s disease of the breast

It’s possible for breast cancer to spread to other parts of the body, usually through the blood or the axillary lymph nodes. These are small lymphatic glands that filter bacteria and cells from the mammary gland.

If this happens, it’s known as secondary, or metastatic, breast cancer.

Breast cancer screening

Mammographic screening, where X-ray images of the breast are taken, is the most commonly available way of finding a change in your breast tissue (lesion) at an early stage.

However, you should be aware that a mammogram might fail to detect some breast cancers.

It might also increase your chances of having extra tests and interventions, including surgery, even if you’re not affected by breast cancer.

Women with a higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer may be offered screening and genetic testing for the condition.

As the risk of breast cancer increases with age, all women who are 50 to 70 years old are invited for breast cancer screening every 3 years.

Women over the age of 70 are also entitled to screening and can arrange an appointment through their GP or local screening unit.

The NHS is in the process of extending the programme as a trial, offering screening to some women aged 47 to 73.

Treating breast cancer

If cancer is detected at an early stage, it can be treated before it spreads to other parts of the body.

Breast cancer is treated using a combination of:

  • surgery
  • chemotherapy
  • radiotherapy

Surgery is usually the first type of treatment you’ll have, followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or targeted treatments.

The type of surgery and the treatment you have afterwards will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. Your doctor should discuss the best treatment plan with you.

In a small proportion of women, breast cancer is discovered after it’s spread to other parts of the body (metastatic breast cancer).

Secondary cancer, also called advanced or metastatic cancer, is not curable, so the aim of treatment is to relieve symptoms.

Living with breast cancer

Being diagnosed with breast cancer can affect daily life in many ways, depending on what stage it’s at and the treatment you will have.

How people cope with the diagnosis and treatment varies from person to person. There are several forms of support available, if you need it.

Forms of support may include:

  • family and friends, who can be a powerful support system
  • communicating with other people in the same situation
  • finding out as much as possible about your condition
  • not trying to do too much or overexerting yourself
  • making time for yourself

Preventing breast cancer

As the causes of breast cancer are not fully understood, at the moment it’s not possible to know if it can be prevented.

If you have an increased risk of developing the condition, some treatments are available to reduce your risk.

Studies have looked at the link between breast cancer and diet. Although there are no definite conclusions, there are benefits for women who:

  • maintain a healthy weight
  • exercise regularly
  • have a low intake of saturated fat
  • do not drink alcohol

It’s been suggested that regular exercise can reduce your risk of breast cancer by almost as much as a third. Regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle can also improve the outlook for people affected by breast cancer. 

If you’ve been through the menopause, it’s particularly important that you try to get to, and maintain, a healthy weight.

This is because being overweight or obese causes more oestrogen to be produced, which can increase the risk of breast cancer.

The first symptom of breast cancer that most women notice is a lump or an area of thickened tissue in their breast.

Most breast lumps are not cancerous, but it’s always best to have them checked by a doctor.

You should see a GP if you notice any of the following:a new lump or area of thickened tissue in either breast that was not there beforea change in the size or shape of one or both breastsa discharge of fluid from either of your nipples, a lump or swelling in either of your armpits a change in the look or feel of your skin, such as puckering or dimpling, a rash or rednessa rash (like eczema), crusting, scaly or itchy skin or redness on or around your nipple, a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast.

Breast pain is not usually a symptom of breast cancer.

The causes of breast cancer are not fully understood, making it difficult to say why one woman may develop breast cancer and another may not.However, there are risk factors known to affect your likelihood of developing breast cancer. Some of these you cannot do anything about, but there are some you can change.

Age

The risk of developing breast cancer increases with age. The condition is most common in women over age 50 who have been through the menopause.

About 8 out of 10 cases of breast cancer happen in women over 50.All women who are 50 to 70 years of age should be screened for breast cancer every 3 years as part of the NHS Breast Screening Programme.

Women over the age of 70 are still eligible to be screened and can arrange this through their GP or local screening unit.Find out more about breast screening.

Family history

If you have close relatives who have had breast cancer or ovarian cancer, you may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.However, because breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, it’s possible for it to occur in more than one family member by chance.

Most cases of breast cancer do not run in families, but genes known as BRCA1 and BRCA2 can increase your risk of developing both breast and ovarian cancer. It’s possible for these genes to be passed on from a parent to their child. The genes TP53 and CHEK2, are also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Speak to a GP if breast or ovarian cancer runs in your family and you’re worried you may get it too. They may refer you for an NHS genetic test, which will tell you if you have inherited one of the cancer-risk genes.

Find out more about predictive genetic tests for cancer-risk genes.

Previous breast cancer or lump, If you have previously had breast cancer or early non-invasive cancer cell changes in breast ducts, you have a higher risk of developing it again, either in your other breast or in the same breast.

A benign breast lump does not mean you have breast cancer, but certain types of breast lumps may slightly increase your risk of developing cancer. Some benign changes in your breast tissue, such as cells growing abnormally in ducts (atypical ductal hyperplasia), or abnormal cells inside your breast lobes (lobular carcinoma in situ), can make getting breast cancer more likely.

Dense breast tissue

Your breasts are made up of thousands of tiny glands (lobules) that produce milk. This glandular tissue contains a higher concentration of breast cells than other breast tissue, making it denser.

Women with dense breast tissue may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer as there are more cells that can become cancerous.

Dense breast tissue can also make a breast scan (mammogram) difficult to read, as any lumps or areas of abnormal tissue are harder to see.Younger women tend to have denser breasts.

As you get older, the amount of glandular tissue in your breasts decreases and is replaced by fat, so your breasts become less dense.Hormones and hormone medicine.

Exposure to oestrogen.

The female hormone oestrogen can sometimes stimulate breast cancer cells and cause them to grow.The ovaries, where your eggs are stored, begin to produce oestrogen when you start puberty, to regulate your periods.Your risk of developing breast cancer may rise slightly with the amount of oestrogen your body is exposed to.For example, if you started having periods at a young age and experienced the menopause later than average, you will have been exposed to oestrogen over a longer period of time.In the same way, not having children or having children later in life may slightly increase your risk of developing breast cancer because your exposure to oestrogen is not interrupted by pregnancy.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer.All types of HRT can increase the risk of breast cancer, except for vaginal oestrogen.There is no increased risk of breast cancer if you take HRT for less than 1 year.But if you take HRT for longer than 1 year, you have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who never use HRT.The increased risk of breast cancer falls after you stop taking HRT, but some increased risk remains for more than 10 years compared to women who have never used HRT.Find out more about the risks of HRT.

Contraceptive pill

Research shows that women who take the contraceptive pill have a slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer.However, the risk starts to decrease once you stop taking the pill, and your risk of breast cancer is back to normal 10 years after stopping.

Lifestyle factors

Being overweight or obeseIf you have experienced the menopause and are overweight or obese, you may be more at risk of developing breast cancer.This is thought to be linked to the amount of oestrogen in your body, as being overweight or obese after the menopause causes more oestrogen to be produced.

Alcohol

Drinking alcohol increases the risk of getting breast cancer.People who drink even small amounts of alcohol on a regular basis have a greater risk of getting breast cancer than people who do not drink alcohol at all. The more alcohol you drink, the more your risk of getting breast cancer increases.

Radiation

Certain medical procedures that use radiation, such as X-rays and CT scans, may slightly increase your risk of developing breast cancer.If you had radiotherapy to your chest area for Hodgkin lymphoma you should have already received a letter from the Department of Health and Social Care inviting you for a consultation with a specialist to discuss your increased risk of developing breast cancer.See your GP if you were not contacted or if you did not attend a consultation. You’re usually entitled to have your breast checked with an MRI scan.If you currently need radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma, your specialist should discuss the risk of breast cancer before your treatment begins.

You may be diagnosed with breast cancer after routine breast screening, or you may have symptoms that you’ve seen your GP about.

Seeing a GP

See a GP as soon as possible if you notice any symptoms of breast cancer, such as an unusual lump in your breast or any change in the appearance, feel or shape of your breasts.The GP will examine you. If they think your symptoms need further assessment, they’ll refer you to a specialist breast cancer clinic.

Tests at a breast cancer clinic

If you have suspected breast cancer, either because of your symptoms or because a mammogram has shown an abnormality, you’ll be referred to a specialist breast cancer clinic for further tests

Mammogram and breast ultrasound

If you have symptoms and have been referred to a specialist breast unit by a GP, you’ll probably be invited to have a mammogram, which is an X-ray of your breasts. You may also need an ultrasound scan.If cancer was detected through the NHS Breast Screening Programme, you may need another mammogram or ultrasound scan.Your doctor may suggest that you only have a breast ultrasound scan if you’re under the age of 35. This is because younger women have denser breasts, which means a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in detecting cancer.Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce an image of the inside of your breasts, showing any lumps or abnormalities.Your breast specialist may also suggest a breast ultrasound if they need to know whether a lump in your breast is solid or contains liquid.

Biopsy

A biopsy is where a sample of cells is taken from your breast and tested to see if it’s cancerous.You may also need a scan and a needle test on lymph nodes in your armpit (axilla) to see whether these are also affected.Biopsies can be taken in different ways, and the type you have will depend on what your doctor knows about your condition. 

Needle aspiration

Needle aspiration may be used to test a sample of your breast cells for cancer or drain a small fluid-filled lump (benign cyst).Your doctor will use a small needle to extract a sample of cells, without removing any tissue.

Needle biopsy

Needle biopsy is the most common type of biopsy. A sample of tissue is taken from a lump in your breast using a large needle.You may have a local anaesthetic, which means you’ll be awake during the procedure, but your breast will be numb.Your doctor may suggest that you have a guided needle biopsy, usually guided by ultrasound or X-ray, or sometimes MRI, to obtain a more precise and reliable diagnosis of cancer.This can also distinguish it from any non-invasive change, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

Vacuum-assisted biopsy

Vacuum-assisted biopsy, also known as mammotome biopsy, is another type of biopsy.During the procedure, a needle is attached to a gentle suction tube, which helps to obtain the sample and clear any bleeding from the area.

Our 2nd Annual Pro/Celebrity football match

With the brilliant success of our 10th Anniversary Pro/Celebrity football match in June this year we’ve decided to do it again!

SO we are holding a pro/celebrity football match at Hednesford Town Football Club on the 25th June.

Gates open at 12pm and the game will kick off at 2pm

We have a great line up of ex professional footballers and celebrities who are giving up their time free of charge to help us raise much needed funds.

They will be playing a team of players who have raised £100 each to play (they also get to keep their kit). You can secure a place on the team here. NO LONGER AVAILABLE

We are very grateful to Hayden and his club for giving us the pitch, staff and security from his team at Lionheart security all free of charge.

You can get tickets here….

Platinum – (seated in Main stand + meet and greet )

VIP – (seated in the main stand)

General Adult tickets (Standing areas only)

OAP/Child ticket

10th Anniversary Christmas Ball

This year is our tenth anniversary and we intend to have the best Christmas ball yet to celebrate

Unlike other Balls you may have been to this is not a night of bothering you for donations (there will be buckets around the room however if you would like to) but a night of celebration of the work we’ve done.

This year our ball will be held at the beautiful Grand Station in Wolverhampton a very grand place indeed and we need your help to fill it.

Tickets this year are £55 each and are available here you can also buy a table of ten for £500 saving £50 !! Here

There are also 2 great drink packages. The first is a bottle of Prosecco, 2 bottles of Yellow Tail Wine and 5 bottles of Peroni for £95, you can book that here The second is an unlimited drinks wristband for £55 and you can book that here

The night starts at 6.30pm where you will be able to grab a drink and get to your table before Co-Founder Susan Bates will welcome you.

This will be followed by a beautiful three course dinner before the evenings entertainment gets underway. Entertainment this year comes from 90s boy band 911, 90s Heartthrob Kavana and BGT Magician Sean Heydon!

We also have some fantastic celebrity friends coming along to spend the evening with us including……

Mel Eves Ex Professional Footballer

Steve Clamp – ITV Central News presenter

Packy Lee – Actor Peaky Blinders

Annette Badland – Actor Dr Who, Eastenders

Ricky Rayment – Towie

Louis Emerick – Brookside, Coronation Street, Benidorm

Akeem Griffiths – Big Brother

Dee Kelly – Benefit Street & Celebrity Big Brother

Rodney Marsh – Ex Professional Footballer

Deano Baily – Ibiza Weekender

Shane Nolan – Singer / Entertainer

Kellie Maloney – TV personality

What is gallbladder cancer?

Gallbladder cancer is a cancer that’s found anywhere in the gallbladder.The gallbladder is a small organ in the top part of your tummy that helps you digest your food.Gallbladder cancer is often found when someone is having treatment for another condition, such as gallstones.How serious gallbladder cancer is depends on where it is in the gallbladder, how big it is, if it has spread and your general health.

Main symptoms of gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder cancer may not have any symptoms, or they might be hard to spot.

Symptoms of gallbladder cancer include:

  • your skin or the whites of your eyes turn yellow (jaundice), you may also have itchy skin, darker pee and paler poo than usual
  • loss of appetite or losing weight without trying to
  • a high temperature, or you feel hot or shivery
  • a lump in your tummy

Other symptoms can affect your digestion, such as:

  • feeling or being sick
  • aching pain in the right side of your tummy, sometimes described as a “dragging feeling”
  • sharp pain in your tummy
  • a very swollen tummy that is not related to when you eat

If you have another condition like irritable bowel syndrome you may get symptoms like these regularly.

You might find you get used to them. But it’s important to be checked by a GP if your symptoms change, get worse, or do not feel normal for you

Who is more likely to get gallbladder cancer

Anyone can get gallbladder cancer. It’s not always clear what causes it.

You might be more likely to get it if you:

  • are over the age of 75, it’s most common in people over 85
  • are a woman
  • have certain medical conditions, such as gallstones, growths (polyps) in your gallbladder, porcelain gallbladder, abnormal bile ducts, long-term swelling of the gallbladder or bile ducts, or diabetes
  • have a brother, sister or parent who had gallbladder cancer
  • have Latin American or Asian heritage

Many gallbladder cancers are linked to your lifestyle.

How to reduce your chance of getting gallbladder cancer

You cannot always prevent gallbladder cancer. But making healthy changes can lower your chances of getting it.

  • try to lose weight if you are overweight
  • try to cut down on alcohol – avoid drinking more than 14 units a week
  • try to quit smoking

You will need more tests and scans to check for gallbladder cancer if the GP refers you to a specialist.

These tests can include:

  • blood tests
  • scans, like an ultrasound scan (sometimes from inside your body using an endoscope), CT scan, PET scan, MRI scan, or a type of X-ray called a cholangiography
  • collecting a small sample of cells from the gallbladder (called a biopsy) to be checked for cancer
  • a small operation to look inside your tummy, called a laparoscopy
  • a test called an ERCP –

You may not have all these tests.

These tests can also help find problems in other nearby organs. Such as your bile ducts, pancreas or liver.

Getting your results

It can take several weeks to get the results of your tests.

Try not to worry if your results are taking a long time to get to you. It does not definitely mean anything is wrong.

You can call the hospital or GP if you are worried. They should be able to update you.

A specialist will explain what the results mean and what will happen next. You may want to bring someone with you for support.

If you’re told you have gallbladder cancer

Being told you have gallbladder cancer can feel overwhelming. You may be feeling anxious about what will happen next.

Gallbladder cancer is sometimes found when you are having an operation to remove your gallbladder.

This might be because you have another condition, such as gallstones.

You might have been having tests and scans after being referred to a specialist by a GP.

A group of specialists will look after you throughout your diagnosis, treatment and beyond.

Your team will include a clinical nurse specialist who will be your main point of contact during and after treatment.

You can ask them any questions you have.

Next steps

If you’re told you have gallbladder cancer, the specialists will use the results of some of the tests and scans to help find out the size of the cancer and how far it’s spread (called the stage).

You may need to have more tests done.

Find out more about what cancer stages and grades mean.

The specialists will use the results of these tests and work with you to decide on the best treatment plan for you.

Treatment for gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder cancer is often treatable, but it can be difficult to treat.

The treatment you have will depend on:

  • the size and type of gallbladder cancer you have
  • where it is
  • if it has spread
  • your general health

It may include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

The specialist care team looking after you will:

  • explain the treatments, benefits and side effects
  • work with you to create a treatment plan that is best for you
  • help you manage any side effects, including changes to your diet to help you digest your food

You’ll have regular check-ups during and after any treatments. You may also have tests and scans.

If you have any symptoms or side effects that you are worried about, talk to your specialists. You do not need to wait for your next check-up.

Surgery

Your treatment will depend on if the cancer can be removed or not.

Surgery to remove gallbladder cancer

If gallbladder cancer is found early and it has not spread, you may be able to have surgery to remove it.

This will usually involve removing all of the gallbladder, as well as parts of other organs or lymph nodes around it. Lymph nodes are part of your body’s immune system.

Surgery to help control symptoms of gallbladder cancer

If the cancer has spread too far and cannot be removed, you may have surgery to help control some symptoms of gallbladder cancer.

This can include surgery to:

  • unblock the bile duct or stop it getting blocked, which helps with jaundice
  • bypass a blockage in the bile duct, this helps with jaundice and feeling or being sick

The aim of these operations is to help improve your symptoms, not to cure the cancer.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses medicines to kill cancer cells.

You may have chemotherapy for gallbladder cancer:

  • before surgery to help make the cancer smaller
  • after surgery to get rid of any remaining cancer and help stop the cancer coming back
  • to help make the cancer smaller, and control and improve the symptoms if you are not able to have surgery because you are very unwell, or the cancer cannot be removed by surgery

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy uses high-energy rays of radiation to kill cancer cells.

Radiotherapy is not often used to treat gallbladder cancer. But you may have radiotherapy to help control and improve the symptoms of advanced cancer.

Eye cancer

Around 750 cases of eye cancer (ocular cancer) are diagnosed in the UK each year.

There are a number of different types of cancer that affect the eyes, including:

  • eye melanoma
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • lymphoma
  • retinoblastoma – a childhood cancer

Cancer can also sometimes develop in the tissues surrounding your eyeball or spread to the eye from other parts of the body, such as the lungs or breasts.

This topic focuses on melanoma of the eye, one of the most common types of eye cancer. 

Symptoms of eye cancer

Eye cancer does not always cause obvious symptoms and may only be picked up during a routine eye test.

Symptoms of eye cancer can include:

  • shadows, flashes of light, or wiggly lines in your vision
  • blurred vision
  • a dark patch in your eye that’s getting bigger
  • partial or total loss of vision
  • bulging of 1 eye
  • a lump on your eyelid or in your eye that’s increasing in size
  • pain in or around your eye, although this is rare

These symptoms can also be caused by more minor eye conditions, so they’re not necessarily a sign of cancer.

But it’s important to get the symptoms checked by a doctor as soon as possible.

Melanoma of the eye

Melanoma is cancer that develops from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes.

Most melanomas develop in the skin, but it’s also possible for them to occur in other parts of the body, including the eye.

Eye melanoma most commonly affects the eyeball. Doctors sometimes call it uveal or choroidal melanoma, depending on exactly which part of your eye is affected.

It can also affect the conjunctiva (the thin layer that covers the front of the eye) or the eyelid.

What causes eye melanoma?

Eye melanoma occurs when the pigment-producing cells in the eyes divide and multiply too rapidly. This produces a lump of tissue known as a tumour.

It’s not clear exactly why this occurs, but the following factors may increase the risk of it happening:

  • lighter eye colour – if you have blue, grey or green eyes, you have a higher risk of developing eye melanoma compared with people who have brown eyes
  • white or pale skin – eye melanoma mostly affects white people and is more common in those with fair skin
  • unusual moles – if you have irregularly shaped or unusually coloured moles, you’re more at risk of developing skin cancer and eye melanoma
  • use of sunbeds – there’s some evidence to suggest that exposing yourself to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds, for example, can increase your risk of eye melanoma
  • overexposure to sunlight – this increases your risk of skin cancer, and may also be a risk factor for eye melanoma

The risk of developing eye melanoma also increases with age, with most cases being diagnosed in people in their 50s.

Diagnosing melanoma of the eye

If your GP or optician (optometrist) suspects you have a serious problem with your eyes, they’ll refer you to a specialist eye doctor called an ophthalmologist for an assessment.

If they suspect you have melanoma of the eye, they’ll refer you to a specialist centre for eye cancer.

There are 4 centres in the UK, located in London, Sheffield, Liverpool and Glasgow.

It’s likely you’ll have a number of different tests at the centre, including:

  • an eye examination – to look at the structures of your eyes in more detail and check for abnormalities
  • an ultrasound scan of your eye – a small probe placed over your closed eye uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the inside of your eye; this allows your doctor to find out more about the position of the tumour and its size
  • a fluorescein angiogram – where photographs of the suspected cancer are taken using a special camera after dye has been injected into your bloodstream to highlight the tumour

Occasionally, a thin needle may be used to remove a small sample of cells from the tumour (biopsy). 

The genetic information in these cells is analysed to give an indication of the chances of the cancer spreading or coming back.

Treatments for eye melanoma

Treatment for melanoma of the eye depends on the size and location of the tumour.

Your care team will explain each treatment option in detail, including the benefits and any potential complications.

Treatment will aim to conserve the affected eye whenever possible.

The main treatments for eye melanoma are:

  • brachytherapy – tiny plates lined with radioactive material called plaques are inserted near the tumour and left in place for up to a week to kill the cancerous cells
  • external radiotherapy – a machine is used to carefully aim beams of radiation at the tumour to kill the cancerous cells
  • surgery to remove the tumour or part of the eye – this may be possible if the tumour is small and you still have some vision in your eye
  • removal of the eye (enucleation) – this may be necessary if the tumour is large or you have lost your vision; the eye will eventually be replaced with an artificial eye that matches your other eye

Chemotherapy is rarely used for eye melanoma, but may be suitable for other types of eye cancer.

The Cancer Research UK website has more information about the treatment options for eye cancer and the types of eye cancer surgery.

Outlook for eye melanoma

The outlook for melanoma of the eye depends on how big the cancer is at the time it’s diagnosed and exactly which parts of the eye are affected.

Overall:

  • about 8 out of every 10 people (80%) diagnosed with a small eye melanoma will live for at least 5 years after diagnosis
  • about 7 out of every 10 people (70%) diagnosed with a medium-sized eye melanoma will live for at least 5 years after diagnosis
  • about 5 out of every 10 people (50%) diagnosed with a large eye melanoma will live for at least 5 years after diagnosis

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that affects bones or the tissue around bones.

It mainly affects children and young people, but is also seen in adults. It’s more common in males than females.

Symptoms of Ewing sarcoma

Symptoms include:

  • bone pain – this may get worse over time and may be worse at night
  • a tender lump or swelling
  • a high temperature that does not go away
  • feeling tired all the time
  • unintentional weight loss

Affected bones may also be weaker and more likely to break. Some people are diagnosed after they have a fracture.

The legs (often around the knee), pelvis, arms, ribs and spine are the main areas affected by Ewing sarcoma.

Tests for Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma can be difficult to diagnose because it’s quite rare and the symptoms can be similar to lots of other conditions.

Several tests may be needed to diagnose the cancer and see where it is in the body.

These tests may include:

  • an X-ray
  • blood tests
  • an MRI scan, a CT scan or a PET scan
  • a bone scan – after having an injection of a slightly radioactive substance that makes the bones show up clearly
  • a bone biopsy, where a small sample of bone is removed so it can be checked for signs of cancer and certain genetic changes associated with Ewing sarcoma

Treatments for Ewing sarcoma

Treatment for Ewing sarcoma often involves a combination of:

  • radiotherapy – where radiation is used to kill cancer cells
  • chemotherapy – where medicine is used to kill cancer cells
  • surgery to remove the cancer

As Ewing sarcoma is rare and the treatment complicated, you should be treated by a specialist team. They’ll recommend a treatment plan based on where the cancer is and its size.

Talk to your care team about why they’ve suggested the treatment plan, and ask them to go over the benefits and any risks involved. You may also want to discuss what care you might need afterwards.

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is often used to treat Ewing sarcoma before and after surgery, or it may be used instead of surgery if the cancer cannot be removed safely.

Chemotherapy

Most people with Ewing sarcoma have chemotherapy to shrink the cancer and then surgery to remove as much of it as possible. This is often followed by further chemotherapy to kill any leftover cancer cells.

Surgery

If Ewing sarcoma affects your bones, you’ll need surgery at a specialist bone cancer centre.

There are 3 main types of surgery for Ewing sarcoma. Surgery can be used to remove:

  • the affected bone or tissue – this is called a resection
  • the bit of bone containing cancer and replacing it with a piece of metal or bone taken from another part of the body – this is called limb-sparing surgery
  • all or part of an arm or leg – this is called an amputation

If you have an arm or leg amputated, you may need a prosthetic limb and support to help you regain the use of the affected limb.

Outlook for Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma can spread to other parts of the body quite quickly. The earlier it’s diagnosed, the better the chance of treatment being successful.

It can sometimes be cured, but this might not be possible if the cancer has spread.

The cancer can also come back after treatment, so you’ll be offered regular check-ups to look for any signs of this. Some people need treatment for many years.

Around 6 out of 10 people with Ewing sarcoma live at least 5 years after being diagnosed. But this can vary and some people live much longer.

Speak to your care team about the chances of your treatment being successful.

Womb (uterus) cancer

Cancer of the womb (uterine or endometrial cancer) is a common cancer that affects the female reproductive system. It’s more common in women who have been through the menopause.

Symptoms of womb cancer

The most common symptom of womb cancer is vaginal bleeding that is unusual for you (abnormal).

If you’ve been through the menopause, any vaginal bleeding is considered abnormal.

If you have not yet been through the menopause, abnormal bleeding may include very heavy periods or bleeding between your periods.

When to see a GP

See your GP as soon as possible if you experience any unusual vaginal bleeding. While it’s unlikely to be caused by womb cancer, it’s best to be sure.

Your GP will ask about your symptoms and offer an internal examination. They will refer you to a specialist if necessary for further tests to rule out any serious problem.

Types of womb cancer

Most womb cancers begin in the cells that make up the lining of the womb (the endometrium). This is why cancer of the womb is often called endometrial cancer.

In rare cases, womb cancer can start in the muscle wall of the womb. This type of cancer is called uterine sarcoma and may be treated in a different way. Read more about soft tissue sarcomas.

Womb cancer is separate from other cancers of the female reproductive system, such as ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

Why does womb cancer happen?

It’s not clear exactly what causes womb cancer, but certain things can increase your risk of developing it.

One of the main risk factors for womb cancer is higher levels of a hormone called oestrogen in your body.

A number of things can cause your oestrogen levels to be high, including obesity. There is also a small increase in the risk of womb cancer with long-term use of the breast cancer drug tamoxifen.

It’s not always possible to prevent womb cancer, but some things are thought to reduce your risk. This includes maintaining a healthy weight and the long-term use of some types of contraception.

Treating womb cancer

The most common treatment for womb cancer is the surgical removal of the womb (hysterectomy).

A hysterectomy can cure womb cancer in its early stages, but you will no longer be able to get pregnant. Surgery for womb cancer is also likely to include the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

Radiotherapy or chemotherapy are also sometimes given too.

A type of hormone therapy (progestogen) may be used if you have not yet been through the menopause and would still like to have children.

Even if your cancer is advanced and the chances of a cure are small, treatment can still help to relieve symptoms and prolong your life.

Living with womb cancer

Living with cancer is challenging, and womb cancer can affect your life in specific ways.

For example, your sex life may be affected if you have a hysterectomy, especially if your ovaries are removed. You may find it physically more difficult to have sex and also have a reduced sex drive.

You may find it beneficial to talk to other people about your condition, including family members, your partner or other people with womb cancer.