Oral Cancer

Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer, is where a tumourdevelops on the surface of the tongue, mouth, lips or gums.

Tumours can also occur in the salivary glands, tonsils and the pharynx (the part of the throat from your mouth to your windpipe) but these are less common.

Symptoms of mouth cancer include:

  • red or white patches on the lining of your mouth or tongue
  • ulcers
  • a lump

See your GP if these symptoms do not heal within three weeks, especially if you’re a heavy drinker or smoker.

Types of mouth cancer

A cancer that develops on the inside or outside layer of the body is called a carcinoma and these types of cancer are categorised by the type of cells the cancer starts in. Your smile is one of the first things others notice. Cosmetic dentistry can so easily, so affordably, so dramatically transform your entire look, and Dr. Wagner is experienced at preforming number of treatments depending on your wants, needs and goals. Sometimes fixing minor imperfections like cracks, chips and gaps with porcelain veneers can completely change everything. Other times, a simple whitening might be all you need to transform your look and outlook on life. you can learn about dental implants here at this site.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of mouth cancer, accounting for nine out of 10 cases. Squamous cells are found in many places around the body, including the inside of the mouth and under the skin.

Less common types of mouth cancer include:

  • oral malignant melanoma – where the cancer starts in cells called melanocytes, which help give skin its colour
  • adenocarcinomas – cancers that develop inside the salivary glands

What causes mouth cancer?

Mouth cancer occurs when something goes wrong with the normal cell lifecycle, causing them to grow and reproduce uncontrollably.

Image Dental describes next risk factors for developing mouth cancer include:

  • smoking or using products that contain tobacco
  • drinking alcohol – smokers who are also heavy drinkers have a much higher risk compared to the population at large
  • infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV), the virus that causes genital warts

Who is affected by mouth cancer?

Mouth cancer is an uncommon type of cancer, accounting for one in 50 of all cancer cases.

In the UK, just over 6,767 new cases of mouth cancer were diagnosed in 2011 (the latest reliable data).

Most cases of mouth cancer first develop in older adults who are between 50-74 years of age.

Mouth cancer can occur in younger adults, but it’s thought that HPV infection may be responsible for the majority of cases that occur in younger people.

Mouth cancer is more common in men than in women. This is thought to be due to the fact that, on average, men drink more alcohol than women.

Treating mouth cancer

There are three main treatment options for mouth cancer. They are:

  • surgery – where the cancerous cells are surgically removed and, in some cases, some of the surrounding tissue
  • chemotherapy – where powerful medications are used to kill cancerous cells
  • radiotherapy – where high energy X-rays are used to kill cancerous cells

These treatments are often used in combination. For example, a course of radiotherapy and chemotherapy may be given after surgery to help prevent the cancer returning.

Complications of mouth cancer

Both surgery and radiotherapy can make speaking and swallowing difficult (dysphagia).

Dysphagia can be a potentially serious problem. If small pieces of food enter your airways and become lodged in your lungs, it could trigger a chest infection, known as aspiration pneumonia.

Reducing the risk

The three most effective ways to prevent mouth cancer from developing – or prevent it reocurring after successful treatment – are:

  • not smoking
  • keeping to the recommended weekly limits for alcohol consumption (21 units for men and 14 units for women
  • eating a ‘Mediterranean-style diet’, with plenty of fresh vegetables (particularly tomatoes), citrus fruits, olive oil and fish

It’s also important that you have regular dental check-ups because dentists can often spot the early stages of mouth cancer. Visiting one of these dental clinics near Newington, can do a scraping and test it for cancer.

Outlook

If mouth cancer is diagnosed early, a complete cure is often possible using a combination of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. So, once again you should remember to visit dentist regularly to make sure everything is fine. If you are looking for a good dental services, go to Alaska Dental Associates website for details.

The outlook for mouth cancer can vary depending on which part of the mouth is affected and whether it has spread from the mouth into surrounding tissue. The outlook is much better if the cancer is diagnosed early.

Overall, an estimated 40% of people with cancer affecting the mouth and pharyx will live at least five years after their diagnosis and many people live much longer. However, the outlook is better for cancer affecting certain areas of the mouth, such as the lip, tongue or oral cavity.

Interesting fact: find out more about porcelain veneers.

Liver Cancer

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of liver cancer are often vague and don’t appear until the cancer is at an advanced stage. They can include:

  • unexplained weight loss
  • loss of appetite
  • feeling very full after eating, even if the meal was small
  • feeling sick and vomiting
  • pain or swelling in your abdomen (tummy)
  • jaundice (yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes)
  • itchy skin
  • feeling very tired and weak

Visit your GP if you notice any of the symptoms listed above. Although they are more likely to be the result of a more common condition, such as an infection, it’s best to have them checked.

You should also contact your GP if you have previously been diagnosed with a condition known to affect the liver, such as cirrhosis or a hepatitis C infection, and your health suddenly deteriorates.

What causes liver cancer?

The exact cause of liver cancer is unknown, but most cases are associated with damage and scarring of the liver known as cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis can have a number of different causes, including drinking excessive amounts of alcohol over many years and having a long-term hepatitis B or hepatitis C viral infection.

It is also believed obesity and an unhealthy diet can increase the risk of liver cancer because this can lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

By avoiding or cutting down on alcohol, eating healthily and exercising regularly, and taking steps to reduce your risk of becoming infected with hepatitis B and C, you may be able to significantly reduce your chances of developing liver cancer.

Read more about the causes of liver cancer and preventing liver cancer.

Who is affected?

Despite being a common type of cancer worldwide, liver cancer is relatively uncommon in the UK, with just over 4,000 new cases diagnosed each year. However, the chances of developing the condition are high for people with risk factors for the condition.

The number of people affected by liver cancer rises sharply with age, with around 8 in every 10 cases diagnosed in people aged 60 or older, although it also affects many people younger than this. Around two in every three cases affect men.

Over the past few decades, rates of liver cancer in the UK have risen considerably, possibly as a result of increased levels of alcohol intake and obesity.

Diagnosis and screening

Liver cancer is usually diagnosed after a consultation with a GP and a referral to a hospital specialist for further tests, such as scans of your liver.

However, regular check-ups for liver cancer (known as surveillance) are often recommended for people known to have a high risk of developing the condition, such as those with cirrhosis.

Having regular check-ups helps ensure the condition is diagnosed early. The earlier liver cancer is diagnosed, the more effective treatment is likely to be.

Read more about diagnosing liver cancer.

How liver cancer is treated

Treatment for liver cancer depends on the stage the condition is at. If diagnosed early, it may be possible to remove the cancer completely.

Treatment options in the early stages of liver cancer include:

  • surgical resection – surgery to remove a section of liver
  • liver transplant – where the liver is replaced with a donor liver
  • microwave or radiofrequency ablation – where microwaves or radio waves are used to destroy the cancerous cells

However, only a small proportion of liver cancers are diagnosed at a stage where these treatments are suitable. Most people are diagnosed when the cancer has spread too far to be removed or completely destroyed.

In these cases, treatments such as chemotherapy will be used to slow down the spread of the cancer and relieve symptoms such as pain and discomfort.

Because liver cancer is most often detected at an advanced stage, only around one in every five people live for at least a year after being diagnosed, and just 1 in every 20 people live at least a further five years.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is one of the most common and serious types of cancer. Over 41,000 people are diagnosed with the condition every year in the UK.

There are usually no signs or symptoms in the early stages of lung cancer, but many people with the condition will eventually develop symptoms including:

  • a persistent cough
  • coughing up blood
  • persistent breathlessness
  • unexplained tiredness and weight loss
  • an ache or pain when breathing or coughing

You should see your GP if you have these symptoms.

Types of lung cancer

Cancer that begins in the lungs is called primary lung cancer. Cancer that begins in another part of the body and spreads to the lungs is known as secondary lung cancer. This page is about primary lung cancer.

There are two main types of primary lung cancer. These are classified by the type of cells in which the cancer starts. They are:

  • non-small-cell lung cancer – the most common type, accounting for more than 80% of cases; can be either squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or large-cell carcinoma
  • small-cell lung cancer – a less common type that usually spreads faster than non-small-cell lung cancer

The type of lung cancer you have will determine which treatments are recommended.

Who is affected

Lung cancer mainly affects older people. It is rare in people younger than 40, but the rates of lung cancer rise sharply with age. Lung cancer is most commonly diagnosed in people aged 70-74 years.

Although people who have never smoked can develop lung cancer, smoking is the main cause (about 90% of cases). This is because smoking involves regularly inhaling a number of different toxic substances.

Treating lung cancer

The treatment for lung cancer depends on the type of cancer, how far it has spread and how good your general health is.

If the condition is diagnosed early and the cancerous cells are confined to a small area, surgery to remove the affected area of lung is usually recommended.

If surgery is unsuitable due to your general health, radiotherapy to destroy the cancerous cells may be recommended instead.

If the cancer has spread too far for surgery or radiotherapy to be effective, chemotherapy is usually used

Outlook

As lung cancer does not usually cause noticeable symptoms until it has spread through much of the lungs or into other parts of the body, the outlook for the condition is not as good as many other types of cancer.

Overall, about 1 in 3 people with the condition will live for at least a year after they are diagnosed and fewer than 1 in 10 people will live at least five years.

However, survival rates can vary widely depending on how far the cancer has spread at the time of the diagnosis. Early diagnosis can make a big difference.

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is a rare type of cancer that affects the thyroid gland, a small gland at the base of the neck. 

The most common symptom of cancer of the thyroid is a painless lump or swelling that develops in the neck.

Other symptoms only tend to occur after the condition has reached an advanced stage, and may include:

  • unexplained hoarseness that lasts for more than a few weeks
  • a sore throat or difficulty swallowing that doesn’t get better
  • a lump elsewhere in your neck

It’s important to remember that if you have a lump in your thyroid gland, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have thyroid cancer. About 1 in 20 thyroid lumps are cancerous.

The thyroid gland

The thyroid gland consists of two lobes located on either side of the windpipe. Its main purpose is to release hormones (chemicals that have powerful effects on many different functions of the body).

The thyroid gland releases three separate hormones:

  • triiodothyronine – known as T3
  • thyroxine – known as T4
  • calcitonin

The T3 and T4 hormones help regulate the body’s metabolic rate (the rate at which the various processes in the body work, such as how quickly calories are burnt).

An excess of T3 and T4 will make you feel overactive and you may lose weight. If you don’t have enough of these hormones, you’ll feel sluggish and you may gain weight.

Calcitonin helps control blood calcium levels. Calcium is a mineral that performs a number of important functions, such as building strong bones.

Calcitonin isn’t essential for maintaining good health because your body also has other ways of controlling calcium.

Types of thyroid cancer

There are four main types of thyroid cancer. They are:

  • papillary carcinoma – this is the most common type, accounting for about 6 out of 10 (60%) cases; it usually affects people under the age of 40, particularly women
  • follicular carcinoma – accounts for around 3 out of 20 (15%) cases of thyroid cancer and tends to affect older adults
  • medullary thyroid carcinoma – accounts for between 5 and 8 out of every 100 diagnosed cases (5-8%); unlike the other types of thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid carcinoma can run in families
  • anaplastic thyroid carcinoma – this is the rarest and most aggressive type of thyroid cancer, accounting for less than 1 in 20 thyroid cancers; it usually affects older people over the age of 60

Papillary and follicular carcinomas are sometimes known as differentiated thyroid cancers, and they’re often treated in the same way.

How common is thyroid cancer?

Thyroid cancer is a rare form of cancer, accounting for less than 1% of all cancer cases in the UK. Each year, around 2,700 people are diagnosed with thyroid cancer in the UK.

It’s most common in people aged 35 to 39 years and in those aged 70 years or over.

Women are two to three times more likely to develop thyroid cancer than men. It’s unclear why this is, but it may be a result of the hormonal changes associated with the female reproductive system.

What causes thyroid cancer?

In most cases, the cause of thyroid cancer is unknown. However, certain things can increase your chances of developing the condition.

Risk factors for thyroid cancer include:

  • having a benign (non-cancerous) thyroid condition
  • having a family history of thyroid cancer (in the case of medullary thyroid cancer)
  • having a bowel condition known as familial adenomatous polyposis
  • acromegaly – a rare condition where the body produces too much growth hormone
  • having a previous benign (non-cancerous) breast condition
  • weight and height
  • radiation exposure

Diagnosing thyroid cancer

A type of blood test known as a thyroid function test will measure the hormone levels in your blood and rule out or confirm other thyroid problems.

If nothing else seems to be causing the lump in your thyroid, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used.

Further testing may be required if the FNAC results are inconclusive, or if more information is needed to make your treatment more effective.

Treating thyroid cancer

Your recommended treatment plan will depend on the type and grade of your cancer, and whether a complete cure is realistically achievable.

Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) are treated using a combination of surgery to remove the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) and a type of radiotherapy that destroys any remaining cancer cells and prevents the thyroid cancer returning.

Medullary thyroid carcinomas tend to spread faster than DTCs, so it may be necessary to remove any nearby lymph nodes, as well as your thyroid gland.

Recurrence

Cancerous cells will return in an estimated 5-20% of people with a history of thyroid cancer. In approximately 10-15% of people the cancerous cells will come back in other parts of their body, such as their bones.

Cancerous cells can sometimes return many years after surgery and radioactive iodine treatment has been completed.

You’ll be asked to attend regular check-ups so any cancerous cells that return can be treated quickly.

Preventing thyroid cancer

From the available evidence, eating a healthy, balanced diet is the best way to avoid getting thyroid cancer and all other types of cancer.

A low-fat, high-fibre diet is recommended that includes plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables (at least five portions a day) and whole grains.

Outlook

The outlook for differentiated thyroid cancers is very good. Most people (80-90%) will have a normal lifespan.

Papillary and follicular carcinomas tend to be slow growing and relatively straightforward to treat.

More than 9 out of 10 people with papillary carcinoma will live for 10 or more years after diagnosis. More than 8 out of 10 people with follicular thyroid cancer will live for at least 10 years after being diagnosed.

Medullary thyroid carcinoma is harder to treat. It doesn’t respond to iodine treatment, so removing all of the cancerous cells can be difficult.

Survival rates for medullary thyroid carcinoma depend on the stage of the cancer when it was diagnosed. If diagnosed in its early stages, 97% of people live at least five years after diagnosis.

If medullary thyroid carcinoma is diagnosed after it has spread to other parts of the body, 1 in 4 people live at least five years after diagnosis.

Because of its aggressive nature, less than 1 in 10 people with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma will live at least five years after being diagnosed.

Pancreatic Cancer

Around 8,000 people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer (also known as cancer of the pancreas) each year.

It is the ninth most common cancer in the UK, more common in people over 60 and not usually found in people under 40 years of age.

The pancreas

The pancreas is a gland – an organ that produces and releases substances to other parts of the body.

It is approximately 15cm (six inches) in length and situated high in your abdomen (tummy) behind the stomach, where the ribs meet at the bottom of your breastbone.

The pancreas produces digestive enzymes (proteins) and a hormone known as insulin. It can be treated by  Functional Medicine Associates doctors to expect better results.

  • digestive enzymes help break down food into fragments so they can be absorbed by your body
  • insulin helps keep sugar levels in your blood at a stable level

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer is when a tumour starts to develop in the pancreas. It rarely causes any symptoms when it first develops, which can make it hard to diagnose. Some time it can lead to obesity, visit ventsmagazine.com to learn more regarding natural weight loss treatments.

The first symptoms can include pain, unexpected weight loss and jaundice. These symptoms can be caused by a wide variety of conditions and are not usually the result of cancer. If you are concerned or these symptoms start suddenly, contact your doctor.

If your GP suspects you have pancreatic cancer, they may examine you for signs of jaundice and carry out a blood test, as well as physically examine your abdomen. They may also send you to hospital for further investigation, including an ultrasound scan

Who is affected?

Pancreatic cancer can occur at any age, but tends to affect people aged between 50 and 80 and is rare among younger people.

Approximately 63% of people diagnosed with cancer of the pancreas are over 70. Men tend to be more affected than women.

People who smoke and people with diabetes or chronic pancreatitis are at higher risk of pancreatic cancer, speaking of diabetes, Blood Boost Formula is one of the most harmless treatments available, check more at thestylishmagazine.

Outlook

Cancer of the pancreas is a very serious form of cancer which is both difficult to detect and treat. Because pancreatic cancer causes few symptoms in its early stages, the condition is often not diagnosed until the cancer is relatively advanced.

Surgery to remove the tumour is usually the only way to completely cure pancreatic cancer. But this is a suitable treatment for only around 15 to 20% of patients.

If your pancreatic cancer cannot be cured, then treatments can help slow the growth of the tumour and ease any symptoms you may be experiencing.

Blood Cancer

Facts about blood cancers

Anyone can get a blood cancer at any age. Around 30,000 people, from babies to grandparents, are diagnosed with blood cancer every year in the UK.

 

Leukaemia

Of the 7,600 cases of leukaemia diagnosed in the UK every year, 94% are adults.

We are leading research into tailoring treatments so that rather than a one size fits all approach, every patient in the future will receive the individual treatment they need.

Childhood leukaemia

Childhood leukaemia is the most common form of cancer in children.

In 1960 when Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research was founded, a child diagnosed with leukaemia had almost no hope of survival.

Today 9 out of 10 children survive the most common form of leukaemia thanks to our continued investment in research into better treatments.

Lymphoma

Around 11,700 people in the UK are diagnosed with lymphoma every year. Lymphoma is challenging to treat mainly because there are so many different types (over 35) of this blood cancer.

Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer in young people aged 15 to 24.

Thanks to our pioneering research, doctors are able to diagnose lymphoma more accurately which means every lymphoma patient receives the best possible care.

Myeloma

Myeloma is a cancer which occurs in later life: only two percent of cases occur in people under 40.

Around 3,750 people are diagnosed with myeloma in the UK every year.

Our scientists have developed a treatment that relieves the painful symptoms of this debilitating cancer. Now they are looking for a cure.

Other disorders

Over 5,300 people are diagnosed with other blood disorders in the UK every year. These disorders are more difficult to treat because they vary so much from patient to patient.

We are integrating insights from laboratory research with information from patients on clinical trials to improve the diagnosis of these blood disorders. Accurate diagnosis will mean that patients receive better treatments.

 Number of people diagnosed in the UK

Disease Children aged 0-14 Young adults aged 15-24 Adults 25+ All ages
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) 370 90 290 750
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) 70 90 2090 2250
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) 20 530 550
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) 3300 3300
Other leukaemias  20 10 670 700
Leukaemia (total) 460 210 6880 7600
Hodgkin lymphoma 70 250 1330 1650
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 100 80 8820 9000
Other lymphoproliferative disorders 1050 1050
Lymphoma (total) 170 330 11200 11700
Myeloma (total)     3750 3750
Other blood cancers 10 35 45
Myelodysplastic syndromes 2000 2000
Myeloproliferative neoplasms 3300 3300
Other blood cancers (total) 10 35 5300 5345
All blood cancers (total) 640 575 27130 28345

 

Male Breast Cancer

What is breast cancer in men?

A breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts from cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that may grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs mainly in women, but men can get it, too. Many people do not realize that men have breast tissue and that they can develop breast cancer and need Breast Cancer Treatment Services to overcome it.

Normal breast structure

To understand breast cancer, it helps to have some basic knowledge about the normal structure of the breasts.

The breast is made up mainly of lobules (milk-producing glands in women), ducts (tiny tubes that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple), and stroma (fatty tissue and connective tissue surrounding the ducts and lobules, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels).

Until puberty (usually around 13 or 14), young boys and girls have a small amount of breast tissue consisting of a few ducts located under the nipple and areola (area around the nipple). At puberty, a girl’s ovaries make female hormones, causing breast ducts to grow, lobules to form at the ends of ducts, and the amount of stroma to increase. In boys, hormones made by the testicles keep breast tissue from growing much. Men’s breast tissue has ducts, but only a few if any lobules.

Like all cells of the body, a man’s breast duct cells can undergo cancerous changes. But breast cancer is less common in men because their breast duct cells are less developed than those of women and because their breast cells are not constantly exposed to the growth-promoting effects of female hormones.

diagram of the internal structure of the breast

The lymph (lymphatic) system of the breast

The lymph system is important to understand because it is one of the ways that breast cancers can spread. This system has several parts.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped collections of immune system cells (cells that are important in fighting infections) that are connected by lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels are like small veins, except that they carry a clear fluid called lymph (instead of blood) away from the breast. Lymph contains tissue fluid and waste products, as well as immune system cells. Breast cancer cells can enter lymphatic vessels and begin to grow in lymph nodes.

Most lymphatic vessels in the breast connect to lymph nodes under the arm (axillary nodes). Some lymphatic vessels connect to lymph nodes near the breast bone (internal mammary nodes) and either above or below the collarbone (supraclavicular or infraclavicular nodes).

diagram of the lymph nodes of the breast

It’s important to know if the cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes. If they have, there is a higher chance that the cells could have gotten into the bloodstream and spread (metastasized) to other sites in the body. This is important to know when you are choosing a treatment. The more lymph nodes with breast cancer cells (positive lymph nodes), the more likely it is that the cancer might be found in other organs as well. Still, not all men who have positive lymph nodes develop metastases, and in some cases a man can have negative lymph nodes and later develop metastases.

Benign breast conditions

Men can also have some benign (not cancerous) breast disorders.

Benign breast tumors

There are many types of benign breast tumors (abnormal lumps or masses of tissue), such as papillomas and fibroadenomas. Benign breast tumors do not spread outside the breast and are not life threatening. Benign tumors are common in women but are very rare in men.

Gynecomastia

Gynecomastia is the most common male breast disorder. It is not a tumor but rather an increase in the amount of a man’s breast tissue. Usually, men have too little breast tissue to be felt or noticed. A man with gynecomastia has a button-like or disk-like growth under his nipple and areola, which can be felt and sometimes seen. Although gynecomastia is much more common than breast cancer in men, both can be felt as a growth under the nipple, which is why it’s important to have any such lumps checked by your doctor.

Gynecomastia is common among teenage boys because the balance of hormones in the body changes during adolescence. It is also common in older men due to changes in their hormone balance.

In rare cases, gynecomastia occurs because tumors or diseases of certain endocrine (hormone-producing) glands cause a man’s body to make more estrogen (the main female hormone). Men’s glands normally make some estrogen, but it is not enough to cause breast growth. Diseases of the liver, which is an important organ in male and female hormone metabolism, can change a man’s hormone balance and lead to gynecomastia. Obesity (being extremely overweight) can also cause higher levels of estrogens in men.

Some medicines can cause gynecomastia. These include some drugs used to treat ulcers and heartburn, high blood pressure, and heart failure. Men with gynecomastia should ask their doctors if any medicines they are taking might be causing this condition.

Klinefelter syndrome, a rare genetic condition, can lead to gynecomastia as well as increase a man’s risk of developing breast cancer.

Breast cancer general terms

Here are some of the key words used to describe breast cancer.

Carcinoma

This is a term used to describe a cancer that begins in the lining layer (epithelial cells) of organs such as the breast. Nearly all breast cancers are carcinomas (either ductal carcinomas or lobular carcinomas).

Adenocarcinoma

An adenocarcinoma is a type of carcinoma that starts in glandular tissue (tissue that makes and secretes a substance). The ducts and lobules of the breast are glandular tissue (they make breast milk in women), so cancers starting in these areas are sometimes called adenocarcinomas.

Carcinoma in situ

This term is used for an early stage of cancer, when it is confined to the layer of cells where it began. In breast cancer, in situmeans that the abnormal cells remain confined to ducts (ductal carcinoma in situ, or DCIS). These cells have not grown into (invaded) deeper tissues in the breast or spread to other organs in the body. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast is sometimes referred to as non-invasive or pre-invasive breast cancer because it may develop into an invasive breast cancer if left untreated.

When cancer cells are confined to the lobules it is called lobular carcinoma in situ. This is not actually a true pre-invasive cancer because it does not turn into an invasive cancer if left untreated.

Invasive (infiltrating) carcinoma

An invasive cancer is one that has already grown beyond the layer of cells where it started (as opposed to carcinoma in situ). Most breast cancers are invasive carcinomas, either invasive ductal carcinoma or invasive lobular carcinoma.

Types of breast cancer in men

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

In DCIS (also known as intraductal carcinoma), cancer cells form in the breast ducts but do not grow through the walls of the ducts into the fatty tissue of the breast or spread outside the breast. DCIS accounts for about 1 in 10 cases of breast cancer in men. It is almost always curable with surgery.

Infiltrating (or invasive) ductal carcinoma (IDC)

This type of breast cancer breaks through the wall of the duct and grows through the fatty tissue of the breast. At this point, it can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. At least 8 out of 10 male breast cancers are IDCs (alone or mixed with other types of invasive or in situ breast cancer). Because the male breast is much smaller than the female breast, all male breast cancers start relatively close to the nipple, so they are more likely to spread to the nipple. This is different from Paget disease as described below.

Infiltrating (or invasive) lobular carcinoma (ILC)

This type of breast cancer starts in the breast lobules (collections of cells that, in women, produce breast milk) and grows into the fatty tissue of the breast. ILC is very rare in men, accounting for only about 2% of male breast cancers. This is because men do not usually have much lobular tissue.

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)

In LCIS, abnormal cells form in the lobules, but they do not grow into the fatty tissue of the breast or spread outside the breast. Although LCIS is sometimes grouped with DCIS as a type of non-invasive breast cancer, most breast specialists think it is a risk factor for developing breast cancer rather than a true non-invasive cancer. As with invasive lobular carcinoma, LCIS is very rare in men.

Paget disease of the nipple

This type of breast cancer starts in the breast ducts and spreads to the nipple. It may also spread to the areola (the dark circle around the nipple). The skin of the nipple usually appears crusted, scaly, and red, with areas of itching, oozing, burning, or bleeding. The fingertips can be used to detect a possible lump within the breast.

Paget disease may be associated with DCIS or with infiltrating ductal carcinoma. It accounts for about 1% of female breast cancers and a higher percentage of male breast cancers.

Inflammatory breast cancer

Inflammatory breast cancer is an aggressive, but rare type of breast cancer. It causes the breast to be swollen, red, warm and tender rather than forming a lump. It can be mistaken for an infection of the breast. This is very rare in men.

Skin Cancer

What is skin cancer?

Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer among white populations, in the UK and worldwide.

Most are easy to treat and pose only a small threat to life, but one type, melanoma, is difficult to treat unless detected early. Over the past 25 years, rates of melanoma in the UK have risen faster than any other common cancer.

Skin cancer symptoms

There are three principal types of skin cancer, which can have different symptoms and appearances.

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) affects a type of cell within the top layer of skin. It’s a slow-growing cancer and doesn’t usually spread to other parts of the body.

BCC affects all sun-exposed areas of the body. The main symptom is a small, painless, pink/brownish-grey lump, with a smooth surface, blood vessels and a waxy or pearl-like border. The lump grows, developing a central depression with rolled edges.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) involves another type of cell in the top layer of skin. It usually affects the face and the main symptom is an area of thickened, scaly skin that develops into a painless, hard lump, reddish brown in colour with an irregular edge. The lump becomes a recurring ulcer and doesn’t heal.

These two types are known as non-melanoma skin cancer. They are usually slow growing, occur on sun-exposed areas of the skin and rarely spread. Similar to my friend who diagnosed this decease. He forcibly stops going to the casino as per says by his doctor and shifts into Daisy Slots, where he can play online.

Melanoma skin cancer can occur anywhere on the body and is more dangerous. It’s related to the common mole and changes in the appearance of moles on your body should be checked by your GP.

Malignant melanoma tends to spread much more rapidly through the bloodstream than the other two types of skin cancer. It affects the cells that produce the skin’s colouring, and if not treated successfully can spread to the liver, lungs or brain.

The main symptom is a quick-growing, irregular, dark-coloured spot on previously normal skin or in an existing mole that changes size, colour, develops irregular edges, bleeds, itches, crusts or reddens. If an adult has a growing, changing, brown or black mark which cannot be covered by the blunt end of a pencil, this should be shown to the doctor straight away.

Occasionally, melanoma may present with swollen lymph glands or rarely in unusual places including the sole of the foot, mouth or eye. If melanoma is diagnosed, then further tests will be done to see if the cancer has spread beyond the skin to other parts of the body. This may involve taking x-rays and scans to look at the liver, brain and lungs.

To find out if it’s skin cancer and if so which type, a doctor will carry out a biopsy, removing all or part of the suspicious growth for analysis.

Skin cancer causes

Although scientists have found that those with lighter skin are far more vulnerable to skin cancers, the main cause of skin cancer is over-exposure to the sun’s harmful UV rays. A suntan isn’t healthy – it’s a sign of skin damage. It’s thought the UV radiation in sunlight causes subtle cell damage which can lead to cancerous changes.

Non-melanoma skins cancer results from prolonged sunlight exposure over many years. The main cause of melanoma skin cancer is exposure to short periods of intense sunlight; the kind of exposure people get on a two-week holiday.

Rates of skin cancer of all sorts are extremely low among dark-skinned people. Men are more likely to develop cancers on their neck, shoulders and back, whereas in women they’re more likely to appear on the legs and arms.

Diagnosing skin cancer

Diagnosis of skin cancer can usually be made by your GP or hospital specialist by simple skin examination. Sometimes, the skin cancer will need to be removed by a small operation or biopsy; both for treatment and lab testing. Other routine tests, including X-rays and scans aren’t usually required.

Skin cancer treatments

Non-melanoma skin cancers are usually treated by a common operation to cut out the affected area under local anaesthetic. Another method used on smaller cancers is cryosurgery, in which liquid nitrogen is applied to the tumour to freeze it and kill the cells, which simply shrivel and drop off.

Some cases of basal cell carcinoma may be suitable for photodynamic therapy, which uses a cream to sensitise the tumour and then exposes it to high intensities of light to destroy it.

In the case of melanoma, if there is a suspicion that the cancer may have spread beyond the skin layer, chemotherapy or biological treatment such as interferon may be given to attempt to eradicate skin cancer cells in other parts of the body.

About 1,800 people die from melanoma skin cancer annually in the UK. Even so, nearly 80 per cent of men and over 90 per cent of women are alive at five years following treatment, browse this site for more info.

Preventing skin cancer

The best way to prevent skin cancer is to avoid too much time in the sun. You don’t have to be sunbathing to get burned. You can get too much sun while walking to the shops, driving a car with the windows down, even under light cloud cover. Time of day and location are important too. The intensity of UV radiation increases during the middle of the day, between April to September, nearer the equator and at higher altitudes.

How to protect yourself and your children:

  • Stick to the shade between 11am and 3pm
  • Cover up with clothes, a wide brimmed hat and sunglasses
  • Apply a high-factor sunscreen (minimum SPF15 and three stars) regularly
  • Drink plenty of water to avoid overheating
  • Avoid using sun lamps or sunbeds
Watch those moles

Many moles aren’t cancerous, but it’s vital to keep an eye on any you have. Watch out for moles that change shape or colour, become bigger, itchy or inflamed, or that weep or bleed. If you notice any changes or are worried, get them checked by a doctor.

Reference: https://omegaboom.com/itch-relief-remedies-for-eczema/.

Testicular Cancer

Cancer of the testicles, also known as testicular cancer, is an uncommon type of cancer that primarily affects younger men.

The most common symptom of testicular cancer is a painless lump or swelling in the testicles. Other symptoms can include:

  • a dull ache in the scrotum (the sac of skin that hangs underneath the penis and contains the testicles)
  • a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum

The testicles

The testicles are the two oval-shaped male sex organs that sit inside the scrotum on either side of the penis. The testicles are an important part of the male reproductive system because they produce sperm and the hormone testosterone, which plays a major role in male sexual development.

Types of testicular cancer

The different types of testicular cancer are classified by what type of cells the cancer first begins in.

The most common type of testicular cancer is known as ‘germ cell testicular cancer’, which accounts for around 95% of all cases. Germ cells are a type of cell that the body uses to help create sperm.

There are two main subtypes of germ cell testicular cancer. They are:

  • seminomas, which account for 40% of all cases of testicular cancer
  • non-seminomas, which account for the remaining 60% of cases of testicular cancer

In practical terms, the only important difference between the two subtypes is that seminomas tend to respond better to radiotherapy (treatment that uses radiation to kill cancer cells) and non-seminomas tend to respond better to chemotherapy (treatment that uses medication to kill cancer cells).

Less common types of testicular cancer include:

  • Leydig cell tumours, which account for around 1-3% of cases
  • Sertoli cell tumours, which account for around 1% of cases

This article focuses on germ cell testicular cancer. The Macmillan website has more information about Leydig cell tumour and Sertoli cell tumour.

If you want to know about what’s causing you food intolerance or allergy?
By knowing how to cure or at least manage your condition, you can get on with your life. Isn’t it time you said “enough!” to bloating, indigestion or frequent toilet trips? By knowing exactly what might be causing you acid reflux, IBS or other symptoms. You can then avoid the triggers and lead a more normal and carefree lifestyle. Without an food intolerance test this can be a tough task of trial and error. Painful blood tests cannot accurately reveal a particular food intolerance.

How common is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is relatively uncommon, accounting for just 1% of all cancers that occur in men. Each year in England, it is estimated that there are three to six new cases of testicular cancer for every 100,000 men.

Testicular cancer is unusual compared to other types of cancers because it tends to affect younger men who are 20 to 55 years of age. As a result, although relatively uncommon overall, testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer to affect young men (20 to 35 years of age).

Rates of testicular cancer are five times higher in white men than in black men. The reasons for this are unclear.

The number of cases of testicular cancer that are diagnosed each year has roughly doubled over the last two decades, both in England and in other European and North American nations. On the other hand, testicular cancer is virtually unheard of in some African and Asian nations. Again, the reasons for this are unclear.

The cause or causes of testicular cancer are unknown, but a number of risk factors have been identified that increase the chance of developing the condition. These include:

  • having a family history of testicular cancer
  • being infertile
  • being born with undescended testicles(cryptorchidism). About 3-5% of boys are born with their testicles located inside their abdomen, which usually descend into the scrotum during the first four months of life

Outlook

The outlook for testicular cancer is very good because it is one of the most treatable types of cancer. Over 95% of men with early stage testicular cancer will be completely cured.

Even cases of advanced testicular cancer, where the cancer has spread outside the testicles to nearby tissue, have an 80% chance of being cured.

Compared to other cancers, deaths from testicular cancer are rare. For example, in 2008, 60 deaths were caused by testicular cancer in England and Wales.

Treatment for testicular cancer includes the surgical removal of the affected testicle (which should not affect fertility or the ability to have sex), chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

See our how to check video here 

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer generally affects men over 50, and is rarely found in younger men. It is the commonest type of cancer in men. Around 34,000 men in the UK are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year.

It differs from most other cancers in the body, in that small areas of cancer within The Prostate are very common and may stay dormant (inactive) for many years.

Approximately one half of all men in their fifties have some cancer cells within their prostate and 8 out of 10 men (80%) over the age of 80 have a small area of prostate cancer. Most of these cancers grow extremely slowly and so, particularly in elderly men, will never cause any problems but if a doctor do not prescribes any mediation he or she can be subject of a court trial as per Faulkner Lawyers.

In a small proportion of men, the prostate cancer can grow more quickly and in some cases may spread to other parts of the body, particularly The Bones

Early (localised) prostate cancer

Early cancer of the prostate gland (early prostate cancer) is when the cancer is only in the prostate and has not spread into the surrounding tissues or to other parts of the body. It is also called localised prostate cancer.

Locally advanced prostate cancer

Locally advanced prostate cancer is cancer that has spread into the tissues around the prostate gland. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is called metastatic prostate cancer.

Advanced (metastatic) prostate cancer

Advanced or metastatic cancer of the prostate gland is when the cancer has spread beyond the prostate gland to other parts of the body.

Prostate cancer is usually diagnosed in the early stages before it has begun to spread outside the prostate gland. In about 1 in 10 men (10%), the prostate cancer will be advanced when it is first diagnosed.

Advanced prostate cancer can also occur in men who have been treated for early or locally-advanced prostate cancer and whose cancer has come back (relapsed or
recurred). You can find out more about the stages of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer cells can sometimes spread beyond the prostate gland (the primary tumour) and travel around the body in the blood stream, or less commonly the Lyphatic system . When these cells reach a new area of the body they may go on dividing and form a new tumour called a metastasis or secondary tumour.

The most common place that prostate cancer spreads to is bones such as the spine, pelvis, thigh bone (femur) and ribs.

Usually the cancer cells will spread to a number of different places in the bones rather than a single site. Sometimes prostate cancer can affect the bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the centre of most bones and is where the blood cells are made. Prostate cancer can also spread to the lymph nodes and very occcasionally may affect the lungs, the brain and the liver.

We have separate information about the different treatment options for each of the three types of prostate cancer.